One of the appealing things about R is interactive flexibility
	enter an expression and something (sensible) prints
		this is an implicit print()
	plot(anything) and something (sensible) plots
	this is provided by object-oriented techniques

Why go through tedious technical programming stuff here?
	some familiarity helps you avoid Confusion and Delay

what is an object?
	you might need a function to return 1, 10 or 100 assorted things
	a list can accomodate any combination of data
		including further lists
	these can be hard to understand and keep track of
	unless you have other functions that know what is what
	some generic functions could know what to do with several kinds
		all print does is dispatch the data to a suitable method

programming tools built on this idea became popular in the 1990s
	make life easier for programmers
	C++ ( on top of C)
	extensions to perl, R

two OO systems are part of R, S3 and S4  
	S3 is easy for casual use
	x <- 100
	class(x) <- 'sillyvalue'
	print.sillyvalue <- function(z) {
	   cat('\n\n\n  ',z , '... is a silly value\n\n')

S3 is not an industrial-grade OO system
	no requirement for classes to be pre-defined
	no checking if class exists
	no checking if data makes sense
	simple-minded method dispatching
		naming convention

in the orthodox OO religion ...
	there is a lot more formality
	objects are like companies
		you know the products and prices
		you're not concerned with production details
		there are laws and contracts
	compare with functions

S4 introduces some further OO formality
	good for bigger programming projects
	has pre-declared class definitions and methods
	checking of data when object created or modified
	still not fully orthodox
		compromise for interactive use

another print example
	   'frog' ,
	      cat('\n\n\n  ',x ,'is a frog\n\n')
	m <- 'Rana esculenta'
	class(m) <- 'frog'

what's missing from the example above is a class definition
	unlike in S3 you are warned if class is not already defined
	the simplest kind of definition is based on an existing class
	setClass(Class='frog', representation='character')
	n <- 100   
	mode(n)   #  n is numeric
	class(n) <- 'frog'  # frog is supposed to be character!
	mode(n)   # it is now

all of the foregoing depend on a generic function
	we won't go into the details but it can be as simple as
	frob <- function (x, ...){ UseMethod('frob') } #S3

Objects are basically lists
	you can make a list of all the information available
	( mod <- aov(weight ~ feed, chickwts) ) 
	accessor functions: coefficients, effects, fitted.values, residuals

S4 objects have slots that have additional magic
	slots are defined in the using setClass
	they have a declared type
	they optionally also have validation methods 
		can check any other characteristics that might be required
	slots are addressed with @ similar to the way $ is used for lists
	packages generally provide accessor functions for objects
		better to use these than addressing slots directly