repetitive operations: scripts
	you can save a series of commands in a text file
	run it whenever you like with source()
	practical problem: the environment may change
		data available may be different
		commands in file may clobber your variables
	need ways of managing data going in and coming back
apply()
	key to processing data by row or column
	apply(data,1,mean) # row means
	apply(data,2,mean) # column means
	min,max, SD, which.min, summary ...
	but what if it's a bit more complicated?
introduction to functions
	a data type called 'function'
		has 'arguments' (list of data to go in) 
		has a 'body' (some code)
	the function gets a name by assignment
	you run it like this : name()
writing your own functions
	many of the R functions we've used were written in R
		you see the source if you forget the ()
	many functions assign variables
		why doesn't your environment fill up?
		why don't your variables get clobbered?
variable scope and environments
	there is not just one environment
	each function has its own environment 
	variables assigned in a function are local
		their 'scope' is limited to the function
		called 'lexical scope' because defined by simple text rule
*onion.html
*envir.html
you can see the enclosing environment (inheritance)
	almost always better to pass in arguments
	last thing evaluated in a function is the return value
		can be any data type	 
arguments:  data to be processed
	either they are required or they have a default value
	the first one is usually the data 
	subsequent arguments are often options
	identifed by name or order
myfirstfunction <- function (x){x-1}
	name of function: myfirstfunction
	arguments: requires one piece of data
		not necessarily called x
	return value: decremented x
	x<-100;myfirstfunction(x)
		x is still 100
		myfirstfunction returns 99